Background Bilirubin encephalopathy is a major complication of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, whose incidence seems to have increased. In Morocco, there is a lacking of prevention of Allo-Rhesus.
ObjectiveTo specify the epidemiology of Bilirubinic Encephalopathy (BE) and kernicterus in our context, to identify the risk factors and the etiologies in Morocco.
Method A retrospective study, which presented 40 neonates with bilirubin encephalopathy; at the neonatal intensive care unit, University Hospital Mohammed VI, Marrakesh, Morocco. During a period, from January 2015 to October 2020. A male predominance was noted with a sex ratio of 2.33.
Results Prematurity was found in 25% of cases. Jaundice was early in 30% of cases. The reason for consultation was jaundice and neurological signs in 35% of cases, 65% of newborns were admitted after the 4th day of life. Etiologies were dominated by neonatal infection in 40% of cases. Phototherapy associated with the etiological treatment and transfusion, constituted the essential of the therapeutic management. Twenty newborns died.
Conclusion Severe hyperbilirubinemia represents a severe condition of neonatal jaundice, it is responsible for definitive sequelae in the absence of screening and appropriate management. This is a scourge in our context given the problem of access to care and delayed care and prevention of alloimmunization.