Background Neuroblastoma is a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the second most common extracranial malignant tumor of childhood, it accounting for8% to 10% of all childhood cancers and for approximately15% of cancer deaths in children.
Objective To designated demographic and clinical geographies of neuroblastoma in Basra pediatric oncology center.
Patients and Methods A retrospective study was carried out from October 2016 till end of April 2017to assessed characteristics features of patients with neuroblastoma who have been registered and admitted to the Basrah Hospital of Pediatric Oncology center during the period from the I st of January 2004 till the end of December 2016.
Results The total cases of neuroblastoma admitted to the Center during that period were 179. Their age ranges from one month up to 14 years, 104 male and 75 female. A special data sheet was designed for the purpose of the study; the information was taken from patient’s files; name, age (date of birth), date of admission, gender and residence. The study showed that the percentage of patients with neuroblastoma treated in Basrah Pediatric Oncology Center have increased gradually from 5% at 2004 to 13.4% at 2015.
The highest frequency of neuroblastoma was found in the age group (1-5 years) that included 117 patients 65.4%.
Higher numbers of patients with neuroblastoma were from the center and northern areas of Basrah (22.3%, 12.3%) respectively and to a lesser extent in western (9%) and, southern (9%), and eastern (2.2%). Other governorates like ThiQar and Maysan account for high rates (28.5% and 21.8% respectively) of admissions in Basrah Paediatric Oncology Center.
This study revealed that most patients with neuroblastoma commonly presented with abdominal mass,gastrointestinal track symptoms and other symptom like pallor and fever, and most patients presented in stage IV (51.39%) or stage III (39.66%) of the disease. Distant metastasis occurs in 93(51.9%), the most common site of metastasis was bone marrow 72 (40.2).
The overall mortality was 92(51.4%), The outcome of patients with neuroblastoma also varied with age, the age group < one year have low percentage of death (7.8%) than the age group 1-5 year(38.0%), the mortality rate was high in last 5 years 2012-2016 (22.3%) while the years from 2008-2011, 2004-2007 percentage of mortality low (16.8%, 12.3%) respectively, the non-compliance was decrease in the last 5 year 2012-2016( 6.7%), high percentage of non-compliance in the period from 2008-2011 (7.8%).
Conclusion None compliance or discontinuation of treatment is an important dilemma for a disease, so increase awareness about early sign and symptoms of the disease and improving the diagnostic facilities, with psychological support in order to resolve this problem.